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Lightening items fade locations of unwanted coloring by interfering with the production and distribution of melanin in the skin by targeting overactive melanocytes (pigment-producing cells). There are a variety of ways to accomplish this and research studies have shown that the finest outcomes happen when utilizing a combination of two or more of these active ingredients.

Tyrosinase Inhibitors

Tyrosinase is a copper enzyme that stimulates melanin production in the melanocyte. Most whitening agents fall under this category, as they interfere with the enzyme’s function thereby reducing pigment production in the melanocyte.


Hydroquinone (HQ) is a hydroxyphenolic compound that has actually been extensively utilized for skin lightening for 50 years. It is the only FDA-approved product for skin bleaching on the market, and a prescription is required to get products with a concentration above 2%. HQ is the most widely studied bleaching representative available, and its effectiveness is sturdily supported through clinical research studies, however its use can come at an expense. The product can be very annoying to sensitive skin, and in many cases can even cause pigmentation to darken and worsen, especially in those with really dark skin types. Long term usage of HQ, particularly in greater concentrations of 4% or more, can lead to the advancement of an irreversible condition referred to as exogenous ochronosis. HQ is also extremely tough to support and will oxidize rapidly if exposed to light and air. If an item including HQ has actually darkened from an off-white or a velvety, pale yellow to a gold or brown color, it is no longer reliable and must be disposed of. It is best to start using HQ items slowly, every few days approximately, and develop up a tolerance. As the skin changes, you can then increase to everyday usage. PrecisionMD VIVATIA Brightening Complex (2% HQ) matches the performance of 4% HQ in its lightening result of the skin.

When utilizing hydroquinone, it is essential to stay out of the sun as much as possible in order for the treatment to work. Exposure to sun degrades the HQ and renders it ineffective.

Kojic Acid

Kojic acid is the second most-common whitening agent and is a more natural and mild option to the stronger impacts of the more regularly used hydroquinone. Kojic acid does posture the danger of triggering allergic or sensitizing responses in a little number of individuals.

Azelaic Acid

A natural skin brightener found in wheat, rye and barley, azelaic acid (AZA) is most efficient in concentrations of 20%, which is closely equivalent in activity to 4% hydroquinone. In a study consisting of 329 melasma victims, half were treated with a 20% azelaic acid option, and half were treated with a 4% hydroquinone solution. Of the patients treated with AZA, 56% had great to favorable outcomes, while 73% treated with HQ had a similar outcome. When the AZA was integrated with tretinoin or alpha hydroxy acids, the outcomes were noticeably enhanced and equaled the outcomes of the high-concentration HQ. Azelaic acid also is antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, so it is effective in the treatment of rosacea and acne.


(likewise referred to as alpha arbutin, bearberry extract or uva ursi extract).

A botanical, naturally-occuring cousin to hydroquinone, arbutin is originated from the bearberry plant (also called uva ursi plant). Compared with HQ, arbutin has actually been revealed to be substantially less cytotoxic to the melanocyte, making it a much safer, yet really efficient, alternative to hydroquinone. In a medical trial including Japanese women with melasma, a 3% concentration of arbutin produced great to exceptional lead to 71.4% of clients within a three-month period.