Breastfeeding is the process that the mother fulfills to feed her newborn child through her breasts, which secrete milk immediately after childbirth, which should be the baby’s primary food for at least two years.
Breast milk has the necessary nutrients that a newborn baby needs up to six months of age to be his only food. The (OMS), explains in her book, where she collects information about infants and toddlers about how they feed on the main components of breast milk, which are:
Fats: In every 100 milliliters of milk there are 3.5 grams of fat, although the amount received by the infant varies along the intake. The fat is concentrated mainly at the end of the shot, so the milk has a more creamy texture than at the beginning. Fats in breast milk are necessary for the neurological development of the infant.
Carbohydrates: The main one is lactose, whose presence is higher than in other types of milk and serves as a source of energy. Other carbohydrates that we can find in breast milk are oligosaccharides, necessary to fight infections.
Proteins: Breast milk contains a lower protein concentration than regular milk, being more suitable for infants. The proteins that we can find are casein or alpha-lactalbumin. Beta-Lactoglobulin, a protein in cow’s milk that may cause lactose intolerance, but is not present in breast milk.
Vitamins and minerals: Breast milk offers the right amount of most vitamins, except for vitamin D. To correct this deficiency, the baby should be exposed to sunlight so that it can generate endogenously, or if not, using vitamin supplements.
Anti-infective components: We can find immunoglobulins, serum proteins or oligosaccharides, and white blood cells.
Bioactive components: We can find out, these help digestion with small intestine fat; Or epidermal growth factor, which stimulates the maturation of the mucosal cells of the intestine to improve the absorption and digestion of nutrients.
The Practical Guide for parents establishes two periods of breastfeeding taking into account the age and development of the baby. Breastfeeding can extend until the child is two years old or even longer if the mother so desires.
From zero to six months:
In this period milk should be the only food that can be ingested by the baby, except if you need a vitamin. According to WHO, the breast milk itself contains 88 percent of water, so it is sufficient to satiate the infant. Breast milk will have variations during this period regarding composition and quantity, adapting to the needs of the newborn.
It is called breast milk colostrum that produced during the first two or three days after delivery. This milk contains a more considerable amount of proteins and minerals. From now on, milk is reducing its protein percentage and increasing the fat and lactose content.
In this period you do not have to set a nursing schedule, but the baby has to fed when needed. Usually between 10 and 12 daily takes lasting between 10 and 20 minutes.
From six months onwards:
Starting at six months, the child will begin to need more food than the one provided by the breast milk. This is still as necessary, and the minimum daily contribution should not fall from 500 ml. Breastfeeding is usually done four or five a day until the first twelve months, and after that, will be progressively reduced by the development of the baby. Both AEPED and who recommends that breastfeeding maintained for a minimum of two years.
After these years of recommendation, the mother can continue breastfeeding her child as long as she wants. When weaning decided, it should not do immediately, but the frequency must reduce gradually.
Your pediatrician will determine if a premature baby can be breastfed or not, depending on the development you have reached. While many can do it from the moment of their birth, for others it will be necessary to extract the breast milk from the breast and to supply it through syringes, probes or bottles.
Premature babies ‘ shots are usually more frequent than normal, and they do not usually It ingests all the milk they need, so it is often then supplied the previously extracted milk.
Sometimes the mother can stop producing the amount of milk needed for her child. In these cases, The Kangaroo method is used, this consists of the direct contact between the mother and the skin of the newborn, this causes the production of milk.
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The mother’s milk can be removed from the breasts and kept so that the baby can feed if the mother cannot be present at the time she asks for it. Also, when more milk produced than the baby needs, it is advisable to remove it to avoid problems such as engorgement or mastitis.
According to the Breastfeeding Committee, in the appropriate conditions the breast milk is kept in good condition for good weather, depending on the temperature at which it maintained:
- Over 30:4 hours.
- Between 25 and 30: four to six hours.